In the EU-28, near to three fifths (57.6 per cent) of most graduates in 2017 had been ladies.

In the EU-28, near to three fifths (57.6 per cent) of most graduates in 2017 had been ladies.

An analysis by industry of education reveals that there have been 1.4 times as numerous graduates that are femalein contrast to male graduates) for company, management and legislation, while higher ratios had been recorded for arts and humanities (2.0 times as much feminine graduates) as well as for social sciences, journalism and information (2.1 times as much feminine graduates), increasing to 2.8 times as numerous female graduates for health insurance and welfare and peaking at 4.1 times as numerous feminine graduates for training (see Figure 2). In comparison, there have been 2.6 times as much male (in contrast to feminine) graduates for engineering, production and fields that are construction-related 4.2 times as numerous male graduates for information and interaction technologies. Into the two smaller areas — farming, forestry, fisheries and fields that are veterinary and solutions — the amount of graduates had been marginally greater for ladies than it absolutely was for males.

An even more detailed photo is presented in Figure 3, which ultimately shows the amount of graduates having a bachelor’s or a master’s level. Some 203 000 people in this field graduated with a bachelor’s degree and 150 000 with a master’s degree in 2017, the most frequently awarded degree — based on detailed fields of education — was for management and administration; across the EU-28. Nursing and midwifery had been the next many degree that is prevalent for people graduating with a bachelor’s degree (121 000), followed closely by training technology (66 000). In comparison, medication ended up being the next most regularly granted level among those graduating having a master’s level (111 000), accompanied by training technology (62 000).

In accordance with how big is the populace aged 20-29 years, the number of tertiary graduates in technology, mathematics, computing, engineering, production and construction increased in the past few years.

Figure 4 shows the difference (in absolute values) between your wide range of male and female graduates in these industries for 2017, with very nearly two times as numerous male as female graduates within the EU-28. The gender gap for this field of education was most marked in Luxembourg, Belgium and Austria, where the number of male graduates was 3.1, 2.8 and 2.7 times as high as the number of female graduates; there were also relatively large differences in Finland, Germany, Malta, Ireland, the Netherlands, Spain and Lithuania in relative terms.

Teaching staff and staff that is student-academic

There have been 1.5 million individuals teaching in tertiary education within the EU-28 in 2017 (see Table 4) of which a small minority — significantly less than 100 000 — provided short-cycle tertiary courses. One or more quarter (27.5 per cent) for the tertiary education staff that is teaching the EU-28 were based in Germany, with just over one tenth each in Spain (11.3 percent) while the great britain (10.5 percent).

The majority of tertiary education teaching staff were men in contrast to the teaching staff in primary and secondary education, where women were in the majority.

Nearly three fifths (56.6 per cent) regarding the teaching that is EU-28’s in tertiary education in 2017 were males, a share that neared two thirds in Greece (65.7 percent) and ended up being additionally above 60.0 % in Malta, Italy, Luxembourg, Czechia and Germany. By comparison, females accounted for a most of the tertiary education staff that is teaching Romania (50.8 per cent), Finland (51.9 percent), Latvia (56.4 per cent) and Lithuania (56.7 per cent).

In 2017, student-academic staff ratios in tertiary education averaged 15.4 over the EU-28 (excluding Denmark and Ireland). Among the list of EU Member States, the greatest student-staff ratios had been recorded in Greece (38.7), while ratios with a minimum of 20 pupils per staff member had been additionally recorded in Belgium, Cyprus and Italy. By comparison, student-staff ratios were in solitary numbers in Luxembourg (7.2 pupils per employee) and Malta (9.7) and had been additionally relatively lower in Sweden and Denmark (2015 information).


Information concerning general public expenditure on tertiary education general to gross domestic item (GDP) are for sale to 27 regarding the EU Member States (no information for Croatia) — see Figure 5. This ratio ranged in 2016 from 0.5 percent in Luxembourg, 0.6 per cent in Bulgaria and 0.7 percent in Czechia, Romania, Ireland, Italy and Greece (2015 information) to 1.8 percent into the Netherlands, Austria and Finland, 1.9 % in Sweden, peaking at 2.4 per cent in Denmark (2014 information). In 2015, the normal ratio for the EU-28 (excluding Denmark and Croatia) ended up being 1.2 percent.

Supply information for tables and graphs

Information sources


The standards for worldwide data on training are set by three worldwide organisations:

The foundation of data utilized in this short article is a joint UNESCO/OECD/Eurostat (UOE) information collection on training data and this may be the foundation for the core components of Eurostat’s database on training data; in conjunction with the joint information collection Eurostat additionally gathers information on local enrolments and spanish learning.

Legislation (EC) No 452/2008 of 23 April 2008 gives the appropriate basis for the manufacturing and growth of EU statistics on training and lifelong learning. Two European Commission Regulations have actually been used in regards to the implementation of the training and training information collection workouts. The very first, Commission Regulation (EU) No 88/2011 of 2 2011, concerned data for the school years 2010/2011 and 2011/2012, while the second, Commission Regulation (EU) No 912/2013 of 23 September 2013, concerns data for school years from 2012/2013 onwards february.

Extra information concerning the joint data collection will come in a write-up regarding the UOE methodology.


The worldwide classification that is standard of (ISCED) could be the foundation for international training data, explaining various degrees of training; it had been first developed in 1976 by UNESCO and revised in 1997 and once again last year. ISCED 2011 distinguishes nine levels of training: very very early youth training (level 0); primary training (degree 1); reduced additional training (degree 2); upper additional training (degree 3); post-secondary non-tertiary training (degree 4); short-cycle tertiary education (degree 5); bachelor’s or comparable (degree 6); master’s or comparable (degree 7); doctoral or comparable (degree 8). The very first outcomes according to ISCED 2011 had been posted in 2015 you start with data when it comes to 2013 guide duration for data on pupils and staff that is teaching the 2012 guide duration for data on spending. This category types the foundation out of all the analytical information that is presented in this essay.

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